The M1.4 Thruster with ConstantQ™ Propulsion

Our thruster maneuvers satellites and spacecrafts with water, which proves to be a safe, energy efficient, and inexpensive propellant. ConstantQ™ provides strong and reliable thrust for any mission.

The Model M1 is a new form factor, now available for quick delivery from Miles Space. It has a 1U envelope and is designed for 3+U spacecraft needing:

  • Orbit raising
  • Orbit phasing
  • De-orbit
  • Drag makeup
  • Desaturation of reaction wheels
  • Attitude control

ConstantQ™ Water Propulsion offers: 

  • Efficient power use
  • Non-toxic (low safety risk)
  • Ease of transportation and ground support
  • Ease of fueling/refueling
  • Low handling costs
  • Low Manufacturing costs
  • Easily added to ride share 
  • Excellent fuel economy
  • Powerful thrust

Miles Space offers low cost primary or secondary thrusters to satisfy the pending FCC regulations on maneuverability.


Yes. For deorbit, the Delta-v for 3U or 6U spacecraft is sufficient to reduce orbit and accelerate decay through drag. Delta-v is sufficient for several orbit maneuvers.

First flight scheduled Q4, 2021

The M1.4 device uses ConstantQ™ propulsion technology, converting electricity and water vapor into thrust. Thrust is derived from electrostatic acceleration of separated ions and electrons using a combination of classic collisionless flow and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) regimes, all working in a cycle determined by propellant temperature, input power, and device geometry. The operating cycle is self stabilizing and does not require real time active control once initiated, though altering temperature and/or power will alter delivered thrust. The process is self neutralizing and does not require a neutralizer device. Pressures throughout the system generate water vapor through sublimation, avoiding the need for water to boil and tolerating frozen ice as the propellant. Temperature management is achieved with a high-density flat heater on the tank, a valve self-heating feature, and routing of electronics waste heat to minimize freezing of water vapor. Thrust is attained with a wide range of temperatures, including a tank full of frozen water ice.

Water vapor is generated through sublimation that occurs when the system is run below the vapor pressure – a process that does not require water to boil into steam. Water vapor, not liquid water, reaches the thrust heads and is converted into plasma and thrust. Should liquid water get near the thrust heads, it would rapidly sublimate into vapor due to vacuum exposure.

Thermal Draw: 11.5 Watts (Heater on, no thrusters active) 

System Power: 5.75 Watts (all thrusters active)

Input Voltage: 5V logic, 12V thrust

No. The M1.4 naturally operates in pulses with a slight breathing mode around an unstable operating point. Internal capacitors essential to starting the process also prevent instant shutdown as their stored energy continues to feed pulses. As such, impulse bit timing, duration, and thrust are likely not regulated tightly enough for precision pointing of small craft.

  • Thrust: 2.8 mN (all thrusters active)